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Saffron Nutrition

~ Nutrition = Life & Life = Nutrition ~

Nutrients

The following are breakdowns of Macronutrients and Micronutrients with a very short brief over some with importance:

Macronutrients

Protein- (1g = 17kj) Complex molecules found in cells of all living things. They are best found in our muscle mass and critical components of all tissues of the human body, including; bones, blood, and hormones. Proteins are found to function in; metabolism, immunity, nutrient transport and they can provide energy in certain circumstances. The building blocks of proteins are Amino Acids some are essential and some are not as they can be synthesised by the body through measurements, the essential one's are important to maintain a healthy dynamic, and therefore we will look at the foods that provide us these essential amino acids.

Foods that contain all essential amino acids and are known as complete proteins include; red meat, pork, game, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, soy products, quinoa, and soybeans (soy milk, tempeh, tofu, miso, edamame), another way to achieve complete protein requirements is by combining foods together, additional foods that contain protein can be: chickpeas, lentils, beans, almonds, walnuts, seeds, goji berries, brazil nuts, figs, kale, broccoli, avocado, and Spirulina.

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  • caution for vegans and general, spirulina and tempeh contain mainly B12 which is analogue a form of B12 the body cannot use as B12, and blocks the absorption of other B12 foods at the same time, therefore advised to separate from B12 consumption and pay attention to your B12 levels.
  • Staying away from processed meats and deli goods can be of good benefits as these are usually high in nitrites, sulphites and other additives and preservatives, they usually also are low nutrient dense and have been found to lead to health complications over periods of time.
  • Having a lot of red meat or any animal with more than 2 legs can be heavy on our digestive tract, with consumption in our body taking longer to digest this may lead to constipation, bloating, or other digestive issues, having these in moderation is the key and all fish products are great sources as well as chicken or turkey.

 

Fibre- (1g = 8kj) In order to understand fibre further we will take a look at the various types of fibre;

soluble fibre- includes pectins, gums and mucilage, which are found mainly in planet cells. One of it major role is to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels, help with constipation, help maintain blood sugar levels, and help delay the absorption of sugar from the intestines. Good sources include; fruits, vegetables, oat bran, barley, seed husks, flaxseed, psyllium, dried beans, lentils, peas, soy milk, and soy products.

Insoluble fibre- includes cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, making up part of the structural plant cell walls. One of the major roles is to add bulk to stools, prevent constipation, and associated problems like haemorrhoids. Good sources include; wheat bran, corn bran, rice bran, skins of fruit and vegetables, nuts, seeds, dried beans and wholegrain foods.

Both types are beneficial for us, and most plants contain a mixture of both, with understanding fibre, Nutrient relevant values Australia has come up with an AI (average intake) that should be acquired in general, for adult Men 30g/day and Women 25g/day.

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  • For those that want to lose weight or following diet plans it is helpful to note that high fibre diets help protect against weight gain, as high-fibre foods have lower-energy density, which means they provide less energy (Kj or Kcal). They are bulky and filling, soluble fibre slows down the emptying of the stomach and the transit time of food through the digestive system, it also delays the absorption of sugars helping maintain lower blood sugar levels and prevent a rapid rise in blood insulin levels linked to obesity and diabetes.

Carbohydrates- (1g = 17kj) Comes from the chemical composition of sugar units- carbon and hydrogen. Containing chemistry elements of; Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O).

CHO breaks into three departments; simple CHO, complex starchy CHO and complex fibrous CHO. The primary role for CHO is to provide energy to fuel cells, particularly the brain as it requires glucose for its metabolism.  

Simple sugars -  The simplest form of carbohydrate is glucose. Simple sugars that are found in foods include sucrose (table sugar), fructose (found in fruit), and lactose (found in milk). Not all simple carbs are bad. Natural simple carbs in fruit and milk are perfectly fine and healthy.

Complex starchy CHO-  Include whole grains, peas and beans, which are rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber. The problem is often they are refined. Machinery is used to remove the high fibre parts (the bran and germ) from the grain. Once refined it loses it complex structure and all its health benefit properties. Example; white rice, white flour, white bread, sugary cereals, and pasta, noodles and pretty much anything made from white flour and more.

Complex fibrous CHO- Fibrous carbs are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, other nutrients and tend to be green vegetables, they are also full of fiber, very good for the digestive system as colon cleansers, and essential for keeping our colon clean and healthy. They are also low on calories and impossible to overeat on green vegetables, some are so low they contain less calories than it is required to eat them like celery.  

 

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  • Complex CHO such as vegetables are superior food source, if weight loss is your goal, or if you are CHO sensitive.
  • The best time for you to ingest fruit is before and after workouts or physical activity.
  • Staying away from refined CHO is best for our health, equally as important of staying away from sugar. Sticking to unrefined complex CHO is great as they still contain the bran and germ thus giving us nutritional benefits examples include: whole-grain rice, wholemeal bread, porridge oats and whole-wheat pasta.
  • Brown and or green is good, white is bad apart for cauliflower and some potatoes.
  • There is no established recommended intake for CHO other than for babies with AI 0-6-month 60g/day and 7-12-month 95g/day, as it is essential in these times to fuel the babies brain for proper development and 60% of the brain is fuelled on energy intake.

Lipids – Fats- (1g = 37kj) Being part of the most concentrated form of energy in the body, they also aid fat-soluble vitamins absorption (A, D, E, K), and they are vital for production of other compounds; cell membranes, hormones, and eicosanoids. Some types include:

Cholesterol- Intake of dietary saturated fat and trans fat is converted by the liver into cholesterol, and transported by either HDL the “good cholesterol” LDL the “bad cholesterol” high amounts of HDL slow down the development of cardiovascular disease, where LDL can potentially build up in the arteries, clog them up against there wall, leading atherosclerosis which greatly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The way the liver decides the fate of the cholesterol can depend on the individual body composition, diets, or other. Some would say avoidance is the key however we need to note that cholesterol takes role in making; Vitamin D, Bile, cell membranes, sex hormones, steroid hormones. Sources include: full fat cheese, milk, cream, yoghurt, meat products, fatty meat, lard, dripping, ghee, butter, coconut cream, etc.  

Phytosterols- derive from plant sterols and plant stanols, relating to plant cholesterol. Phytosterols interfere with the intestinal absorption of dietary cholesterol and may aid by lowering blood cholesterol levels, or facilitate the excretion of biliary cholesterol in the stools. Sources includes; whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes and high concentration levels in vegetable oil.  

Essential Fatty AcidsPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), include essential fatty acids omega 3 and omega 6, which cannot be made by the body.

omega 6 (most common fatty acid) is made from Linoleic acid (LA) found in food such as seed oils, eg sunflower, safflower and corn, omega 6 can produce arachidonic acid which is conditionally essential fatty acid, found in cell membrane and important for cell signalling. Another linked essential fatty acid is Arachidonic Acid (AA) significant because it is a direct precursor to inflammatory eicosanoids, sourced directly from animal fats, or produced in the body from Omega 6 fatty acids.

Omega 3 is made from Alpha Linolenic acid (ALA / LNA), and converts to EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) which are important for eyes, brain, and heart. Foods rich in omega 3 include: legumes, walnuts, salmon, sardines, chia seed, mackerel, flaxseed, soybeans, broccoli, leafy greens, berries. These long chain fatty acids act as precursors for some longer, more highly unsaturated fatty acids and compounds – the eicosanoids which are short lived and good for smooth muscle contraction, blood clotting, immune responses, and inflammation.

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  • Limit trans fat to under <1g per day or less than 1% of energy in total over a day intake.
  • Good spread is Butter, as it contains natural saturated fat, rich in fat soluble vitamins, rich in LA, associated with lower risk of obesity, and aids other nutrients, just don't go overboard to much can be harmful.
  • Try using soft butter trans fat free spreads, the softer the butter or creamier the less chances of containing trans fats, and less saturated.
  • Good oils for usage; flaxseed oil, avocado oil, , safflower oil, coconut oil, almond oil, bran oil, or combining oils making your own texture with herbs, and extra virgin olive oil.  

Micronutrients – Essentially these are vitamins and minerals, which are all needed in certain levels however in micrograms or milligrams quantity, eating a healthy diet will ensure all levels are met sufficiently, when deficiency is evident or there is a health concern further investigation may be required to get to the root of the problem, If you would like to know more further information over the vast nutrients we conduct in the human body, feel free to either ask or you can visit NRV website below for detailed nutrient requirements. As this is a deep field and involved it is best to see a health care professional (nutritionist, naturopath, herbalist, dieticians) for help over the perfect individual macro and micro nutrient balance.  

 

 

 

References

Fibre. (2017). Fibre in Food. Better Health Channel. Retrieved from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/fibre-in-food

Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. Retrieved from https://www.nrv.gov.au

Protein. (2015). Dietary Protein. Medline Plus. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/dietaryproteins.html

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Adam Saffron

Phone: 0421 298 979

nutrition.saffron@gmail.com

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